Define Library and generation

Definition of Library

Library (from French “librairie”; Latin “liber” = book) is an organized collection of resources made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library’s collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque.

The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing – the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. These written archives mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system. Private or personal libraries made up of written books (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. From the 15th century in central and northern Italy, libraries of humanists and their enlightened patrons provided a nucleus around which an “academy” of scholars congregated in each Italian city of consequence. Tianyi Chamber, founded in 1561 by Fan Qin during the Ming Dynasty, is the oldest existing library in China. In its heyday it boasted a collection of 70,000 volumes of antique books. The first library classification system was set up during the Han Dynasty. In North America, it is believed that personal collections of books were brought over to the continent by French settlers in the 16th century. The oldest non-personal library on the North American continent was founded at The Jesuit College in Quebec City in 1635. The first textbook on library science was published 1808 by Martin Schrettinger.

A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to — or cannot afford to — purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.

Library: Merriam-Webster Dictionary

A place in which literary, musical, artistic, or reference materials (as books, manuscripts, recordings, or films) are kept for use but not for sale b: a collection of such materials

A considerable collection of books kept for use, and not as merchandise; as, a private library; a public library. (Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.)

Library: The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

a. A place in which literary and artistic materials, such as books, periodicals, newspapers,
pamphlets, prints, records, and tapes, are kept for reading, reference, or lending.
b. A collection of such materials, especially when systematically arranged.
c. A room in a private home for such a collection.
d. An institution or foundation maintaining such a collection.
2. A commercial establishment that lends books for a fee.
3. A series or set of books issued by a publisher.
4. A collection of recorded data or tapes arranged for ease of use.

Library: Encyclopedia Britannica

Collection of information resources in print or in other forms that is organized and made accessible for reading or study. The word derives from the Latin liber (“book”). The origin of libraries lies in the keeping of written records, a practice that dates at least to the 3rd millennium bc in Babylonia. The first libraries as repositories of books were those of the Greek temples and those established in conjunction with the Greek schools of philosophy in the 4th century bc. Today’s libraries frequently contain periodicals, microfilms, tapes, videos, compact discs, and other materials in addition to books. The growth of on-line communications networks has enabled library users to search electronically linked databases worldwide.

Library: Origin of Libraries in America

On July 1, 1731, Benjamin Franklin and a group of members from the Junto, a philosophical association, drew up “Articles of Agreement” to form a library.
Between them they owned few works of literature, but; they recognized that via the Junto’s combined purchasing power, books could be made available to all members. 50 subscribers invested 40 shillings each to start a library. Members also promised to invest 10 shillings more every year to buy additional books and to help maintain the library. They chose as their motto a Latin phrase which roughly translates as “To support the common good is divine.”

Library: Daily Scenario

A teacher in a classroom is reading a book aloud to her students. As she is reading it, she positions the book in such a manner as to allow clear visibility of each page, so that every student can also read the book at the same time. The end result is that the single copy of the book is being reviewed by multiple people simultaneously, and none are making purchase.

Has the teacher violated copyright laws?

Library: Preservation of Integrity

Making best use of current technology, the transference of a paper image into a digital format is commonly used as a method of preserving the integrity of the original image as oposed to creating a “copy”. Such is why most photographs and documents are converted to digital format – not because duplication is intended, but because preservation of the most accurate presentation is desired and/or necessary.

Library: Questions to Ponder

A collector of comic books makes purchase of a rare and highly valued comic book. In an effort to preserve the integrity and value of the book, the collector places it into a safe that is air tight and moisture resistant. Prior to doing so, he realizes that he wishes to read the book and enjoy its contents, so he makes a single digitized version of it and saves it to his computer, to allow him to read it and not damage the collectable with oils that exist on finger tips and other external environmental factors that may diminish its integrity. Is his single digitized copy an infringement of copyrights?

After making the digitized copy, he invites his friends over to his house, and they all gather around his computer to read the digitized version of the comic book. No one can take home a copy of it. Everybody who is gathered around can only view the single digitized version of the comic on the computer screen of the collector. Has the collector now violated copyright laws?

Another person purchases a comic book that does not have great value, and; this person is not concerned with the impact that body oils may not have on it, nor is he concerned with the effects of external atmospheric influences. He regularly reads the comic book until he has exhausted his pleasure of reading it, and then decides to share the comic with his friends. His group of friends passes the comic book amongst each other, each reading it as often as they wish until they tire of it, and then pass it to another friend. After the entire circle of friends has exhausted their interest in the comic, they decide to donate it to a public library. The library lends the comic to hundreds of its members, for as long as it remains in a readable presentation. Has the single copy of the comic book been involved in copyright infringement?

Going back to the collector and his valued comic, this collector places the comic on a digital platform which allows people to view the comic book just as if they were at his home, but the viewing is handled in such a way that a copy of the comic cannot reasonably be created. This presentation is a mirror of his friends looking over each other’s shoulders to view and read it on the collector’s computer. No person can make a copy to keep for themselves; they can only enjoy viewing it and reading it. There still exists only one digital copy which people have the ability to share and read, but not the ability to own and possess. Has copyright laws been violated?
An entire website is created that allows users to view and read a single copy of a comic book, without the ability to copy it themselves and keep a newly created duplicate. All users of the website are viewing the same copy, and no further copies are created. The original “paper version” still remains in a safe to retain its integrity. Have copyright laws been violated?

Library: Note from the Creator of Website

I work with data extensively, and have created scripts that can publish any book, and will do so in about 40 seconds per entire book of average size 200 pages or less. The entire website, with over 2.2 million pages of comics, took less than 120 man hours to publish.
The end objective is to create an online library with every book of the Library of Congress. I estimate that my code has the ability to accomplish such a task in about 2 years time with the assistance of 3 additional developers of similar skill set.
This tremendous accomplishment would enable America to return to reading entire books again, and not merely bits and pieces from blogs and other forms of postings or incomplete eBooks. It also enables anybody access to books at anytime of day or night. Such may propel America back to a level of education as other countries are achieving, yet we are falling behind on.

Library: Peter Brantley -Defining ‘Library’

A few years ago, I opened the proceedings of a summit that brought together publishers, technologists, founders, and librarians by ripping the cover off a paperback book. I was attempting, feebly, to make a point about the inviolability of books. Having once worked in the mass market division of a major trade publisher, I knew that the life of a mass market paperback was often Hobbesian: brutal and short. Nevertheless, my actions gave me pause.

Today we are living in this incredible moment when we are all tearing off the covers of books. We look inside to see how they are written (by authors), produced (by publishers), and placed in the market (by distributors and retailers). Often, we realize that although much of the work of making books has not disappeared, it has been digitally shifted, and the organizational fabric of publishing is being rewoven before our eyes. The functions a publisher performs; what a book looks or sounds like; how books are authored; how authors make a living: all are changing.

When technology disrupts culture, the impacts reach far beyond economics. The book as we have known it—an object of a certain size, rectangular form, and weight—was an industrial product resulting from a set of complex economic, legal, and social relationships. What we can do with books is wrapped in a collective understanding that has been constructed through the work, and often the struggle, of women and men over many decades. It is because of that social understanding that I found it hard to tear the covers off a paperback; it is the reason why the burning of books is an act commemorated with plaques and ashamed solemnity.

It is also what makes libraries possible. These organizations, wildly irrational in economic terms and massively underwritten by public resources, acquire the world’s literature and then make it continually available, without discrimination, through free circulation. Through libraries, we optimistically assert that knowledge uplifts us all, and that our culture becomes richer when it is shared. The famous inscription on the main branch of the Boston Public Library, “FREE TO ALL,” is true in the instance, but only because we all make contributions towards its realization.

We are now engaged in acts of social reconstruction. Just as digital networks have forced us to deeply question the role of publishers, they also force us to reconsider the role and purpose of libraries, which developed in the modern era around the presumption of the Industrial Age book right along with publishing. A library fills many needs in its community; it is an after-school day care and gaming center, an employment hall and meeting space, offering shelter and privacy. It has also been a place with shelf upon shelf of CDs, newspapers, magazines, and books. Indeed, our understanding of libraries is so bound up in the physical world that their presumptive value has most often been measured through a single proxy: how many books they hold.

As books now flow onto the network, libraries no longer need to place them on their shelves nor do they need to buy copies of every book for each neighborhood served. From a purely technical perspective, there need only be one global digital library.

The economic and social issues, however, are rather more difficult. The value of libraries should not be measured in economic terms alone, but economic considerations must not be disregarded through an embrace of principles orphaned from their social context. What kinds of libraries are desirable, and what they mean for communities, for privacy, and for law: we must decide these all again. Fundamentally, the library must redefine its virtue for publishers and authors, and for citizens and politicians, in the midst of a world economy with significantly dampened public investment.

This is a discussion we must all have together. Our future library will be the product of a shared struggle. Factions will not always agree; our arguments may be vehement. Yet if we communicate with respect and without fear, then our hope for a future with greater access to more information, for more people, and with more participation, may be realized.

How we envision a literate and informed society determines how we make our laws and shape our covenants. We must choose with care, brick by brick, the height of the walls that we place around the sharing of our knowledge and culture. In the choosing we will define our libraries, and ourselves, in a digital age.

Library: Gale Encyclopedia of US History

What distinguishes libraries in the United States from all others in the world is their emphasis on access. While libraries in many countries collect and preserve those books and other materials that document national heritage, libraries in the United Sates have focused on building collections to meet their patrons’ needs. Consequently, American libraries are unrivaled in their ease of use. But the history of the library cannot be told in a single story because there are three distinct types in the United States: academic, special or corporate, and public. Academic libraries are subsets of educational institutions, and their histories reflect the principles and philosophies of their parent organizations. Similarly, the history of special libraries, established by individuals with a particular interest in certain topics, or of corporate libraries, created to support researchers in an organization, parallels the histories of their founders and founders. Only the public library has a history of its own.

University libraries were the first to appear in America (beginning with the Harvard College Library in 1638). The availability of books for the young men who attended universities was an indication that the new nation valued education and knowledge. The presence of books was valued much more than services, but books were scarce, and more than a few British travelers wrote back to their fellow countrymen that the collections found in the United States were not worthy of the name of a library. Since the librarians were most often faculty members who had the assignment of looking after the books, university libraries were poorly funded and unevenly administered.

The history of libraries in America is essentially the story of public libraries. Public libraries grew in countless communities as a response to a growing democracy, but it was not until the nineteenth century that libraries became ubiquitous.

The public library that developed in the United States in the late nineteenth century was a prime example of the democratic institutions created to assimilate and integrate the diverse ethnic and cultural groups that had come to constitute America. By 1900 there were approximately two thousand public libraries in the United States. Most were either social libraries, supported by individual philanthropists with a special interest in the community, or subscription libraries, supported by fees paid by those patrons who wished to use the circulating collections.

It is no coincidence that the public library came onto the scene at the same time that large corporations came into existence. Mercantile libraries, especially in the East, were founded by and run for the benefit of businesspeople, and they became a source of great pride for many cities during the nineteenth century. Most library historians who have studied these institutions argue that the libraries served, primarily, an educational purpose. The self-improvement campaign that was evident in the middle class during much of the nineteenth century was exemplified by the belief that no knowledge should be foreign to the merchant, and therefore that the reading of books, newspapers, and magazines touching on any subject was professionally useful. These mercantile libraries also became the locus of informational lectures on a wide range of topics.

The Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, established in 1886, exemplified the type of library that was becoming common in many cities. Successful individual businessmen—such as Enoch Pratt, who called the library a symbol of democracy—established libraries in an effort to repay the community. The wealthy and well educated men who served on Pratt’s board of trustees proclaimed that his new library was to be an institution “where neither wealth nor poverty, high nor low position in society nor any other distinction entitles the individual to special privileges before the law.” Even if the rules were applied universally, the library was more a symbol of personal success than an open institution for information. The library in Baltimore was built as a closed-stacks institution, which could be used only with permission. Letters of reference had to be submitted to the head librarian.

The modern public library—the type that emphasizes access to information—emerged first in the guise of the Boston Public Library, established in 1852 as the first tax-supported municipal library. Even though it is popular among library historians to refer to the “public library movement,” states and communities were reluctant to tax themselves to provide free library services. In 1849 New Hampshire was the first state to pass enabling legislation that allowed communities to levy taxes for public libraries. It took another fifty years for thirty-seven additional states to pass similar legislation.

Andrew Carnegie’s Philanthropy did more than anything else to accelerate the development of public libraries in towns across the country. In 1881 Carnegie made the first of a series of gifts that would link his name permanently to public library buildings. Motivations for Carnegie’s philanthropy are sharply debated. Some argue that Carnegie’s own experience as a self-made man led him to the recognition that access to books can lead to education, and, ultimately, wealth. Other historians have argued that Carnegie used library development as a form of social control, seeing in the library a way to instill standards of behavior and an appreciation of culture. Whatever the reason, between 1881 and 1919 Andrew Carnegie made grants for the construction of 1,679 public libraries in the United States.

His particular form of philanthropy had enormous influence: Carnegie gave money to municipal governments to build library buildings. The town or city had to promise to buy books and provide library staff. The latter requirement resulted in the growth of library education programs in universities and the creation of a professional organization—the American Library Association—that would campaign for universal library service in the United States. The topic most forcefully debated by the new organization was the nature of library collections. Many of the early professionals who worked in public libraries recognized that most readers had the greatest interest in books and magazines that entertained. Yet, the leaders of the profession argued that the role of the librarian was to encourage the reading of “good” books. The founders of the Boston Public Library, Edward Everett and George Ticknor, held opposing views on the type of collections the public library should contain. Ticknor believed that collecting and circulating the “pleasant literature of the day” would result in the cultivation of higher tastes in reading among the library patrons. Everett, who ultimately lost the battle, argued that the library should be a reference (no circulating) library for scholarly purposes. The compromise reached at the Boston Public Library—a compromise between the “best books” and “the best that people will read”—was copied by libraries across the country throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

From the mid-nineteenth century until 1956, public libraries were guided by state legislation and professional principles. Reference services and children’s services grew as more funding was applied to public libraries. In 1956 the federal government began to support the expansion of library services into rural communities. Federal funds were made available for professional training, construction of new library facilities, and research into library problems. By the 1970s, states began to think in terms of developing uniform library services that were administered by the main state library. Since then, technology-based networks have allowed states to offer more library services at less cost.

In the opening years of the twenty-first century, one aspect of the public library that is assuming more importance is its role as a place where members of a community can come together. Computer-based services are offered to all socioeconomic groups, but as home computers become more popular, the public library increasingly serves as a social safety net by ensuring access to information for those from lower economic levels, seeing this access as a right of all citizens. At the same time, many of the largest university libraries are deeply engaged in developing digital, or virtual, libraries, making resources for research and scholarship available through the Internet. To modern-day librarians, building collections of material that are available to anyone who has access to a computer is a natural extension of earlier services. It is uncertain how the availability of Web-based research materials will affect the concept of the library, but it does cause one to reflect on the extent to which the history of the library, until now, has been a history of buildings. As libraries move into a new era, there will be greater emphasis on information services available to scholars, researchers, and the general public.

Library: Oxford Companion to the US Supreme Court:

The Supreme Court Library has evolved into a significant collection of materials capable of supporting the most sophisticated legal research. The library was created by a congressional act of 1832, providing that law books in the Library of Congress be separated from other works and that a law library be established for the Supreme Court justices. This statute also gave the justices power to promulgate rules for the use of the library. In 1832 the library contained 2,011 volumes.
The Supreme Court’s librarian, Henry Deforest Clarke, was appointed in March 1887. A century later, the current librarian administers an institution that contains half a million volumes and has access to databases and other modern library technology. The library’s collections are similar to those of a large law school library, including comprehensive coverage of the primary legal materials of the United States and each of the fifty states.

The librarian, who is appointed by the chief justice, has the authority to choose assistants and to acquire such books, pamphlets, periodicals, and microfilm as required by the Court for its use and for the needs of its bar. The library is open to the personnel of the Court, members of the bar of the Court, members of Congress, and attorneys of the federal government. The collection is noncirculating, except to justices and members of their legal staffs.

The present library facility dates from 1935, when the Court first occupied a building of its own. The main collection is located on the third floor of the Supreme Court Building. The librarian is also responsible for a separate second floor library used by the justices, the collections of material and databases located in justices’ chambers, and a 15,000squarefoot library located nearby in the Thurgood Marshall Building. The third floor library consists of two rooms; the reading room contains the online catalog and circulation and reference areas. This is where the library houses its primary collections. The other room is the records and briefs room. It houses the most complete collection of the Court’s records and briefs from 1832 (when written briefs were first required) to the present.

ThesaurusLegend: Synonyms Related Words Antonyms



library – a room where books are kept; “they had brandy in the library”

house – a dwelling that serves as living quarters for one or more families; “he has a house on Cape Cod”; “she felt she had to get out of the house”

room – an area within a building enclosed by walls and floor and ceiling; “the rooms were very small but they had a nice view”


library – a collection of literary documents or records kept for reference or borrowing

aggregation, collection, accumulation, assemblage – several things grouped together or considered as a whole

bibliotheca – a collection of books

public library – a nonprofit library maintained for public use

rental collection – a collection of books that can be rented by readers in return for a small daily fee


library – a depository built to contain books and other materials for reading and study

depository library

athenaeum, atheneum – a place where reading materials are available

carrell, cubicle, carrel, stall – small individual study area in a library

depositary, depository, repository, deposit – a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping

circulating library, lending library – library that provides books for use outside the building

reading room – a room set aside for reading

stacks – storage space in a library consisting of an extensive arrangement of bookshelves where most of the books are stored


library – (computing) a collection of standard programs and subroutines that are stored and available for immediate use

program library, subroutine library

computer programing, computer programming, programing, programming – creating a sequence of instructions to enable the computer to do something

library program – a program in a program library

cataloged procedure – a set of control statements that have been placed in a library and can be retrieved by name

library routine – a debugged routine that is maintained in a program library

aggregation, collection, accumulation, assemblage – several things grouped together or considered as a whole


library – a building that houses a collection of books and other materials

building, edifice – a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place; “there was a three-story building on the corner”; “it was an imposing edifice”

The four main types of library

Libraries the whole world over are under threat, mainly because the people who fund them are under the mistaken impression that they are no longer needed in the age of the Internet. I used to be a full-time librarian, but I lost my job in 2002 for that very reason. The company that employed me took the view that because it was “all on the Internet” there was no reason why they should employ somebody to do what everybody could do for themselves from their desktop.

Not surprisingly, we librarians have a different take on the matter. We believe that libraries and librarians are hugely important and will continue to be so. Indeed, the ironic thing is that the availability of information via the World Wide Web makes us even more important and vital!

We want to dispel a few misconceptions and make more converts to the cause, not just because we want to keep our jobs, but because we don’t want people to miss out on the benefits that libraries can bring.

First of all, what do you understand by the word Library? Do you appreciate just how wide-ranging libraries are? For starters, there are FOUR main types of library, which I shall outline in the rest of this lesson.

1. Public Libraries

For many people, this is what a library is – a publicly funded institution that provides books for loan and is used mainly by the very old and the very young. It is probably divided into Lending and Reference, and the Lending stock is split between fiction and non-fiction. The threat to the public library comes partly from the fact that fewer people now read for pleasure, and those who do are more likely to buy their books from Borders or Waterston’s than borrow them from the library, and, on the non-fiction and reference sides, information is easily and quickly obtainable from the WWW, without the need to make a trip to the library.

However, public libraries provide much more than that, such as materials for entertainment and information in a wide range of media. You will also find a lot of information about local services across the spectrum, tailored to the needs of the community served by the library. Above all, you will find professional librarians who are trained to help you find exactly what you are looking for. This includes help with searching the Internet, which you can do from most public libraries these days.

2. Academic libraries

These cover the spectrum from libraries in schools of all sizes, through to those of major universities and research institutions. They have something of a captive audience, in that the institutions they serve are dedicated to teaching and learning, and the libraries’ role is to provide access to the sources of information from which that teaching and learning can develop.

However, they are still under threat, because they cost money to stock and to run, and a school or university has to make a decision as to the proportion of its funds to devote to its library. Academic libraries are therefore benidng over backwards to add increasingly more value to the services they provide.

For example, the university library in which I work part-time is now open 24 hours a day, during term time, so that students can always get access to learning materials. We also offer a wide range of courses in study skills, and 1-on-1 sessions so that students are helped in all sorts of ways.

Just as with the public library sector, it is the people who run and staff academic libraries who make them what they are. It has been known for institutions to try to run their libraries without professional librarians, but these is a highly misguided attitude, because the expertise of a professional librarian is essential in the process of translating a vaguely worded enquiry into the true needs of the enquirer and then into the solution that will best satisfy those needs.

3. Special libraries

Personally, I don’t like this term, because it sounds as though these libraries see themselves as being superior to those of other types, but that is what we are stuck with!

If you think of “special” having the meaning of “specialist”, you will get closer to the mark. These are libraries that serve a particular institution that has a specific role to play, and they will therefore tend to be “one subject” libraries. For example, they could serve a hospital, or a law practice, or an industrial company. They also vary in size, depending in part on the size of the institution they serve, but many of these libraries are run by “solos”, that is, librarians working alone or maybe with only clerical assistance.

Special librarians have become adept at “reading the runes” of the environment in which their business operates, and scan information sources to find material that they know will be of interest to the people working in their company (etc). They also need to be on top of all the information technology that is available to them, and at ways of collecting and presenting information that will save the time of busy people. They may also organize the institution’s own information resources in ways that best suit local needs, maybe through a company intranet. The title “librarian” has been questioned in some quarters, and many people in this sector prefer to be known as “information scientists”.

The threats to this sector of librarianship are obvious, especially where company bottom lines take priority over virtually everything else. It is not easy to gauge the true value of a library to a business, and, to many accountants, anything that cannot be valued in purely monetary terms has no value. I was myself the victim of this sort of thinking, as I had to watch the library system (of four libraries) that I managed for a major UK industrial company being dismantled bit by bit, and eventually disappearing altogether, taking me with it.

4. National library

A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. Unlike public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow books. Often, they include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works.

There are wider definitions of a national library, putting less emphasis to the repository character.

National libraries are usually notable for their size, compared to that of other libraries in the same country. Some states which are not independent, but who wish to preserve their particular culture, have established a national library with all the attributes of such institutions, such as legal deposit.

Many national libraries cooperate within the National Libraries Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to discuss their common tasks, define and promote common standards and carry out projects helping them to fulfil their duties. National libraries of Europe participate in The European Library. This is a service of The Conference of European National Librarians (CENL).

The first national libraries had their origins in the royal collections of the sovereign or some other supreme body of the state.

One of the first plans for a national library was that devised by the Welsh mathematician John Dee, who in 1556 presented Mary I of England with a visionary plan for the preservation of old books, manuscripts and records and the founding of a national library, but his proposal was not taken up.

Types of Online Library

There are two types of library: A program can be built from either or a mixture of both.

1. Static and

2. Dynamic/Shareable

1. Static Libraries

Static libraries really are nothing more than a collection of object files. As the linker processes a library it simply takes a copy of the object files it needs as if you had just compiled them. At the end of linking the executable (i.e. the program you will finally run) contains all your code and all the required library code so can be quite large. Static library files end with a .a suffix e.g. libZoo.a

2. Dynamic/Shareable Libraries

The other type of library is called a Dynamic or Shareable library. Both names give clues to additional features it has to offer. The input to this type of a library is the same as for static libraries i.e. object files; it is the way the linker handles them that is different. In this case it records the information necessary to load it into memory but does not add the code to the executable. So at the end of linking the executable is typically very small. During execution, if the code is called then it is loaded dynamically into shared memory that can be used by other programs. Dynamic library files end with a .so suffix e.g.

In general Dynamic/Shareable are better than Static ones because:-

The executable is much smaller and so loads faster when you start the program.
Object code is only loaded if its required as determined by the program flow. In a large complex program it often happens than only a small part is actually run for any particular job, but if statically loaded, the entire program always gets loaded into memory.
The memory is more efficiently used; if several programs of the same type are running they can share a single copy of the object code.
Addition dynamic libraries, not defined during linking, can be added during execution allowing existing executables to be extended after they were built. This is a very powerful feature. For example one of the standard analysis tools in HEP is the framework ROOT. It is possible to write your own code, compile and store in a dynamic library and then add it during a ROOT job to extend ROOT for your particular application.

There is just one drawback to dynamic libraries.

At the start of execution and while running, the system has to know where to find the dynamic libraries. If they have moved, or the program copied to another computer, then the program may break. If the libraries have changed then the behavior of the executable will change. On the other hand, if statically linked the executable is complete and stand-alone.

Libraries through the Ages

In all ancient and modern cultures, there have been libraries, such as for example, was among the Incas and Aztecs and Maya’s, the famous library of Alexandria, which was 1,600 years ago, unfortunately, completely destroyed by fire – the knowledge of centuries in one fell swoop nullify – the Royal Public Library in Dresden, the great library in the Vatican, the German National Library in Berlin, the Ambrosiana in Milan, in the Oxford Bodleian Library, etc. The library of today and the library of the past is regarded as a common meeting place for generations. This is where old and young, men and women, students and teachers, and authors together to read together, take part in discussion groups to learn, etc. Even small children are playing on the world of books brought up by special reading days. Many people know only through television libraries of crime films, etc., where people have to be very quiet and you can hear pins fall. Meanwhile, the situation has become more relaxed and today’s libraries have become feel-good places for everyone. So here, for example, board games can be borrowed – Family Games, Kids Games, etc. – Puzzles for all ages. This is of course a great thing for families where the money does not sit so loose. You can try out different games before they grow it themselves. The same is true for PC and console games that are here to find a large selection. The annual subscription is for children and adults are very low and actually also for Wenigverdiener feasible. Friendly staff – trained librarians to help – in the library like the users to give them perhaps the fun of reading further. In the school libraries do the work dedicated teachers who give themselves too much trouble to bring the children to read.

In the meantime, however, kept in almost any library in the progress or the technology in the form of the media source. So you can besides the already mentioned earlier PC and console games, films, DVDs, audiobooks, etc., in contrast to earlier borrow the magazines, books and records, etc. Of course, in the libraries are still the books are the main attractions. are there to borrow books of all kinds in the fields of fiction, science, non-fiction – in this example cookbooks; Aquaristikbücher; terrariums books, animal husbandry books, textbooks for handicrafts, knitting, crocheting, embroidering, fretwork etc. Nowadays it is also possible to visit the online library and borrow books online, etc., or online to read newspapers or books. Interlibrary loan, too, have become possible because, as the search is simplified. By using the PC and the lending process through index cards or card files has become easier, as was customary for decades. Today, all books archived in the computer of the library and are therefore all users on the Internet publicly visible

Libraries versus the Internet?

Not necessarily so. As you will have gathered from the above, librarians are skilled at discovering and handling information, from whatever source it may come, and the Internet, particularly the World Wide Web, can be regarded as a giant library, containing vast amounts of information. But it is also highly unwieldly, not at all easy to navigate, and full of traps for the unwary.

The Web’s advantages are also its disadvantages, and Hubpages is a good example of this. There are in excess of 80,000 articles available to you here, but how many of them can you trust? Anyone can write anything they like, but how do you know that the information they are giving you is correct? Having found something good, how do you know that there is not something better?

Hubpages is relatively well organised in these respects, and it has mechanisms that ensure some degree of quality control, but that cannot be said of the whole of the Web by any means. Information professionals can help you to solve problems of these kinds, by pointing you in the right directions, giving you guidance as to the best ways to search, advising you on the correct ways of using the information you find, and a whole lot more.

I once had somebody come running into my company library about 20 minutes before closing time, in a real panic. He had been searching all day for a particular piece of information without success, and said that he had come to me as his last resort. I found what he wanted there and then, and still got home on time. If he had come to me as his first resort, rather than his last, his day would have been a whole lot more productive. The same could apply to you, too!


While standard collection evaluation techniques-e.g., collecting and manipulating statistics on characteristics of the collection, check- ing standard lists, asking experts, analyzing circulation and citation data, surveying users on their successes, failures, expectations-may be (and are) used in any type of library, they appear to receive varying amounts of emphasis from one type of library to another. Differences in the choice of technique arise from differing evaluation objectives (or questions to be answered). The choice of questions to guide the evaluation are themselves determined by the purpose(s) of the library and the additional factors-e.g., governance, clientele, size-influencing and motivating the evaluation. For example, librarians in all types of situations have an interest in how much the collection is used, but those who feel great pressure for accountability from governing authorities or who have a high opinion of the work and abilities of their potential users will have a special interest in gathering information on use and users. In libraries connected with academic institutions, meeting accreditation standards can be very important, so the emphasis of evaluation may be on gathering statistics and measuring size of holdings. In cases where outside influences are not great and the evaluation project originates from the librarian’s desire to know how well the collection development procedures are operating, the way in which collection evaluation is approached may depend on the librarian’s philosophy. A librarian who is primarily concerned with the quality of the materials added to a collection will probably choose collection-centered questions and techniques (e.g., checking of standard lists). One who is more concerned with responding to known demands will plan the project around questions of use and user expectations. Participation or nonparticipation in consortia may affect how collection evaluation is approached. In other words, evaluation can differ from one type of library to another, but differences can also be observed among libraries of the same type. They derive from influences and conditions that transcend simple “type-of- library” distinctions.

The End

Peter Brantley -Defining ‘Library’
Rose Mary Magrill – North Texas State University, Denton, Texas.

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