Evaluation of Bangladesh Primary Educations Administration & Management
Recognizing the importance of primary and non-formal education in ensuring education for all as well as for eradicating illiteracy, the Government created a new Division called Primary and Mass Education Division (PMED) in August 1992 with the status of a Ministry has been renamed as Ministry of Primary and Mass Education since January 2003. The Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MOPME) is responsible for policy formulation, planning, evaluation and execution of plans and initiating legislative measures relating to primary and non-formal education. The Honorable Prime Minister is also the Minister for Primary and Mass Education. There is an advisor to Honorable Prime Minister for Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. MOPME is headed by Secretary of the Government. To assist the Secretary, there are 2 Joint Secretaries. There are also 4 Deputy Secretaries, 1 Deputy Chief, 9 Senior Assistant Secretaries/Assistant Secretaries, 1 Senior Assistant Chief,2 Assistant Chiefs, 1 Statistical Officer and 56 supporting staff members. This Ministry is responsible for op0licy making, administrative management and overall supervision of Primary education and non-formal education. Main objectives of this Ministry are:
- To eradicate illiteracy from the country.
- To take steps so that every child between 6-10 years of age receives primary education.
- To give a second chance for education to the dropout students (boys and girl), youth and adults through non-formal education.
Ministry of Primary and Mass Education
Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) is mainly responsible for policy formulation, supervision, planning, monitoring and evaluation and initiating legislative measures relating to primary and non-formal education. Bangladesh has been trying relentlessly to uphold the cause of education for all since its emergence as an independent country. Article 17 of the Constitution of Bangladesh stipulates that primary education shall be the responsibility of the State. To bear this responsibility primary education in Bangladesh underwent a great deal of changes and development during the last decades. Bangladesh is a signatory to the World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) held at Jomtien, Thailand in March 1990. Bangladesh is also a signatory to the Summit of 9 high Population Countries held on 16 December 1993 in Delhi. Bangladesh participated in the World Education Forum meeting held in Senegal, Dakar in April 2000. The Government enacted Compulsory Primary Education Act in 1990, created a separate Primary and Mass Education Division (PMED) in 1992, introduced compulsory primary education programme in 68 Upazilas in 1992 and expanded this programme all over the country in 1993. The country has formulated National Plan of Action I and II to realize the goals of Education for All. The country has also prepared a Non-formal Education Policy. The PMED was made a Ministry in 2003. Dr. Md. Afsarul Ameen is the Hon’ble Minister and Mr. Md. Motahar Hossain is the Hon’ble State Minister for the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. Objective of the Ministry are below –
- To ensure 100% enrolment, attendance rate and the rate of completion of primary education cycle;
2. To improve the quality of primary and mass education;
3. To expand the facilities of teachers’ and trainers training;
4. To strengthen the supervision system at field level;
5. To undertake institutional reforms and research in education management and its effective decentralization.;
6. To improve school management system and to make schools environment child-friendly;
7. To ensure accountability and transparency at all level;
8. To supply free textbook and teaching-learning material free of cost;
9. To strengthen social mobilization activities and create the concept of social ownership to school.
Directorate of Primary Education
In 1981, a separate Directorate, named “Directorate of Primary Education” was set up. This Directorate was created in order to streamline universal primary education and strengthen the infrastructure. The Directorate is headed by the Director General. In the Directorate, there are five Divisions each headed by a Director. The Task and responsibilities of the Division are as follows:
Administration Division: The responsibilities of this division include general administration of the central and field offices. This division coordinates among the Divisional, District and Upazila Offices and the PTIs.
Planning & Development Division: The responsibilities of this division are drawing up of various development projects on priority basis to effect general and gradual development of primary education in the light of government policies, getting approval of projects, implementation, evaluation, supervision and winding up of completed projects. This division conducts the preparation of development budget, disbursement and allocation of funds and redistribution of foreign externally assisted funds. It also monitors, reviews and coordinates the activities of different projects.
Training Division : The responsibilities of this division are to work for qualitative improvement of primary education, to build up competent and efficient teacher for the classroom and school management. To do this, the division assesses training needs of the teachers as well as the officials at different levels, draws out planes and implements training of PTI teachers and instructors, various short-cluster training of SMC and Parent. Teachers Association (PTA), staff members, sub-cluster training. Curriculum dissemination courses and orientation courses, management, training for the head teachers and short in service training for teachers.
Monitoring and Evaluation Division: This Division collects data on primary education from the field level. Analyses the collected data and publishes quarterly and annual reports. Other responsibilities are: storage and distribution of textbooks, supervision of schools at the field level, sending of reports related to these areas to MOPME.
Policy and Operation Division: This is a newly created Division. This Division is responsible for evaluation of the progress of field level activities and onward transmission of the same to the administrative ministry for next course of action.
It is also responsible for recruitment of teachers at central level. Besides, this Division plays the advisory role to make field level administrative activities more effective
Management Information System Cell (MIS Cell): There is a separate cell in the Directorate for collection of data on selected primary education indicators. This cell is also responsible for computerizing and to develop a data bank.
Organizational Structure of Primary Education
MOPME – Ministry of Primary and Mass Education
DPE – Directorate of Primary Education
CPEIMU – Compulsory Primary Education Implementation Monitoring Unit
NAPE – National Academy for Primary Education
DD Office – Office of the Deputy Director
DPEO – District Primary Education Office
UEO – Upazila Education Office
AUEO – Assistant Upazila Education Officer
URC – Upazila Resource Center
National Academy for Primary Education (NAPE)
The responsibilities of the Academy are development of C-in-Ed (Certificate in Education) curriculum, organizing teachers training, officer training, research, workshops, seminars, etc. conducting C-in-Ed examinations and the academic supervision and guidance of the Director General of the Directorate of Primary Education. The NAPE is going to be upgraded. Acting has been taken to make it an autonomous organization.
Primary Training Institutes (PTIs)
These institutes offer one-year formal course termed as Certificate-in Education (C-in Ed). The course is designed to train the teachers on pedagogical aspects and subject teaching methods. At present, there are 54 governments and one non-government PTIs in the country. The Directorate of Primary Education looks after the administration whereas NAPE looks after the academic matters and conducts C-in- Ed examinations of these institutes.
Office of the Divisional Deputy Director
The responsibilities of administrative, management and training of the Directorate of Primary Education has been decentralized through sex Divisional Offices. These Divisional Offices supervise and control schools, cluster. Upazilla and districts offices under the jurisdiction of the division. Other responsibilities include. Inter District transfer of the Primary school teachers, PTI instructors and other employees, preparation of the quota based list for training courses of C-in Ed, B. Ed and M.Ed trainees, registration of non-government schools, supervision and monitoring of various development projects, conduction primary scholarship examinations, implementation of the programmes of social mobilization, inspection of schools and subordinate offices, implementation of various local programmes.
District Primary Education Office
There are 64 District Primary Education Offices in the headed by District Primary Education Officer, assisted by ADPEO. The tasks and responsibilities of this offices are :
- To take decisions related to administration and supervision of all primary schools (government and non-government) in the District.
- To take steps related to transfer of and disciplinary action against the teachers supervision of schools for the improvement of qualitative standards;
- To act as appointing authority of primary school teachers;
- To grant leave to employees and the primary school teachers to grant and gratuity of the employees and teachers;
- Supervising and monitoring activities of UEOs and AUEOs approval of their tout diaries;
- Executing the duties and instructions transmitted by the MOPME and the DPE.
Upazilla Education Office
There are 481 Upazila Education Offices throughout the country. The UEO has to discharge general responsibilities for management and monitoring of primary education in the Upazila are divided into clusters. A cluster comprises of 20-30 schools. One AUEO is in charge of each cluster. The major responsibilities of UEO are:
- Supervising and inspection primary schools.
- Working as drawing and disbursing officer.
- Sending proposals for transfer, retirement, pension and gratuity benefits of the teachers and employees, to the District Primary Education Officer.
- Constituting a cluster comprising 20-30 schools with the approval of the DPEO, sub-clusters comprise 4-5 schools , and giving the charge of each cluster to an AUEO.
- Working as the Member – Secretary of the Upazila Education Committee (UEC). Preparing the priority list for the development of the primary schools as per decision of UEC.
- Collection of data on primary schools for onward transmission to DPEO/DPE.
- Making recommendations for establishing new schools in unschooled areas.
- Monitoring and updating the service books of the teachers.
Upazila Resources Center
Upazila Resource Centre is a new institution of the Directorate of Primary Education at the Upazila level for professional development of the t43achers. The centre is located in the campus of the model school in a upazila. There are 4 staffs in a URC: 1 Instructor, 1 AUEO, 1 Computer Operator & 1 Nightguard- cum – MLSS. The Instructor is the supervising officer. So far, out of 481 proposed URCs, only 174 URCs (146 under the IDEAL Project and 28 under the Norway supported (PEDPQI) are now functioning. The constructions of separate building for 92 URCs have been completed under IDA, ADB and GTZ assisted projects. These projects supplied furniture as well. The management of the Centre lie with a committee consisting of PTI Super as chairperson, DPEO, UEO, HT of the Model school as members and Instructor of the URC as member-secretary. The Directorate of Primary Education Issued a circular in 1999 stating the functions, responsibilities and management of the centers. The purpose of establishing these centers under PEDP I was manifold but mainly to improving the quality of primary education. Throughout th PEDP I, the potential of an organization like the URC was not fully explored. However, the institution has to a rat extent showed its possibility of being an intervening factor to develop the elements that produce quality. URCs as an should be visualized institution that plays a leading and strong role in bringing qualitative changes in primary education. URCs are organizing Subject based training for primary school teachers. So far, 39, 000 teachers received training on English and Mathematics.
Compulsory Primary Education
Implementation Monitoring Unit (CPEIMU)
Monitoring of implementation of the compulsory primary education program is of vital importance. In order to accelerate this process, a separate unit named the Compulsory Primary Education Implementation Monitoring Unit was created under the direct control of MOPME. This unit is headed by a Director-General and has three Directors and other supporting officials and staff. In cooperation with the DPE, the unit performs the following functions.
- monitors implementation of the compulsory primary education at the field level.
- maintains liaison with the Union, Upazila and District Committees.
- gives monthly subvention to the teachers of registered non-government primary schools and community schools.
- conducts extensive publicity and mass communication in respect of compulsory primary education.
- prepares motivational programmes for various committees.
- conducts survey of eligible school-going children and illiterates.
For the successful implementation of any kind of educational programme, reinforcement of inspection and academic supervision is necessary. In order to perform this inspection properly the following steps have been taken:
- monitoring the school administration.
- fixing targets of follow up actions for implementation of recommendations made during inspection.
- ensuring the regular attendance of the teachers and students in the schools and reducing dropouts through regular supervision and inspection.
Since 1971 when the people fought a glorious war to win Independence. The Constitution of the independent of the independent Bangladesh states that Primary Education shall be the responsibility of the State. The provisions are:
“The State shall adopt effective measures for the purpose of (a) establishing a uniform, mass-oriented and universal system of education and extending free and compulsory education to all children to such stage as may be determined by law; (b) relating education to the needs of the society and producing properly trained and motivated citizens to serve those needs; and (c) removing illiteracy within such time as may be determined by law”.
Acknowledging primary education as a national responsibility of the Government, and recognizing the fundamental rights of the people to education ushered in a new era in Bangladesh. The dawn of independence also saw a reawakening in the realm of primary education. In the light of this, steps to upgrade the education system were taken right after independence. In 1972, the Kudrate-e-khuda Education Commission was formed to recommend objectives, strategies and action plans for creating a modern education system suited to the needs of an independent nation and compatible with the systems of the neighboring countries.